寺崎廣業 白馬山八題(雪渓花苑)TERASAKI Kogyo “Hakuba-yama hachidai (Sekkeikaen)”
(“The Eight Themes of Mount Hakuba (Snowy Gorge and Flower Field)”)

季節を告げる花の便りは実にさまざまですが、陽射しが熱をおび始めるこの時分、多くの人々が開花を待ち望む花は桜、ではないでしょうか。桃色の可憐な姿は、冬の終わりと大地の芽吹きを象徴し、日本美術の不朽の画題として古くより描かれてきました。

「白馬山八題(雪渓花苑)」には、高山に訪れた「春」が描かれています。春といっても、実際の季節は夏で、もちろん桜も見当たりません。白馬連峰 に自生する高山植物の姿です。融雪が進んだ夏の盛りに、作者はこの雲上の花畑を目にしたのです。ここには紛れもなく、人知れず訪れた峻嶺の春があります。

描いたのは、幕末の秋田に生まれた日本画家・寺崎廣業(てらさき・こうぎょう 1866-1919)。狩野派や四条派、南画といった伝統画法を修業しながら徐々に頭角を現わし、晩年には日本画壇で要職を歴任した画人でした。ともに研鑽を積んだ画友に横山大観(よこやま・たいかん 1868-1958)がいますが、長命であった横山大観に対して、寺崎廣業は52歳の若さで急逝しており、知名度は決して高いとはいえません。

本作の舞台は、言わずと知れた名峰・白馬岳。長野県と富山県にまたがる白馬岳は、杓子岳、鑓ヶ岳とともに白馬三山 と称されます。かつて信州側では「西山 」と呼び親しまれた一方、北陸では立山連峰の後ろにそびえる未開の山として、加賀藩が「奥山廻り」と称して国境警備を強化した地帯です。1900年前後に近代登山が本格化してからは、高山植物の宝庫として親しまれてきました。寺崎廣業は大正元年に上林温泉に別荘を構えて以降、毎年夏にこの地で滞在制作を行なっていました。

「白馬山八題」(1917年)は、二泊三日の登山スケッチに基づき、時間や場所の異なる8つの白馬岳が描かれています。その一作「雪渓花苑」の主題は、全長3.5kmの大雪渓と、山頂付近の葱平(ねぶかっぴら)に生育する花々です。そそり立つ岩峰は雪渓南方に位置する杓子岳でしょう。にわかに立ち込める雲がその全貌を隠しはじめますが、隠しようのない堂々たる姿を際立たせます。風雨に晒された雪肌の描写、そして雪面にはしっかりと一本の線が引かれ、ここまでの道のりの険しさを感じさせます。そのスケールに対して、前景の花々はあまりにささやかですが、橙、白、藍色の花々が一面豊かに咲いています。少し背丈が高いのはクルマユリでしょうか。

大雪渓上部、葱平から広がる白馬の花畑は、明治の植物学者たちをこの地へ誘いました(※)。寺崎廣業もこの自然の神秘に触れた岳人のひとりとして、瞬く間に移ろう山上の大気もろとも、幻想的な「白馬の春」を描きだしました。

 

東北福祉大学芹沢銈介美術工芸館 学芸員 今野咲

翻訳:メイボン尚子(WAGON)

 

 

※山岳写真の草分け・志村烏嶺(しむら・うれい 1874-1961)は、エッセイ「白馬五十年」 (『現代登山全集 第4巻』 東京創元社 1961年)で、明治37年夏の初登山について振り返っており、絶滅したと考えられていた珍種を発見したこと、葱平では2種の新種を発見したことを記しています。白馬での植物採取に夢中になり、大正5年まで毎年登ったようですが、ちょうど「白馬山八題」は大正6年制作ですから、寺崎廣業もこの地の原始的な美しさに触れた一人のようです。エッセイには、急増した登山者によって大正11年頃には原始の面影を失いつつあったとの記述もあります。ちなみに昨年(2020)は、大雪渓ルートが雪不足と猛暑の影響で通行止めとなっており、温暖化の影響が懸念されています。

 

[参考]

『生誕150年記念 寺崎廣業展』秋田市立千秋美術館 2016年
『遥かなる山 発見された風景美』山口県立美術館、松本市美術館 2016年
花畑日尚著『白馬岳 』山と渓谷社 2000年
串田孫一ほか編『白馬岳 』博品社 1997年

[画像]

寺崎廣業「白馬山八題(雪渓花苑)」
紙本着色軸装 1917年
秋田県立近代美術館所蔵
画像提供:秋田県立近代美術館

 

 

There are many different types of flowers that herald the coming of the season, but at this time of year, when the sun is beginning to warm up, Sakura, cherry blossom, is the flower that most people look forward to seeing in bloom. The pretty, peach-coloured blossoms symbolise the end of winter and the budding of the earth, and have long been an enduring theme in Japanese art.

“The Eight Themes of Mount Hakuba (Snowy Gorge and Flower Field)” depicts the arrival of spring in the high mountains. Spring here actually indicates summer, and of course there are no blooming cherry blossoms to be seen. The alpine plants are native to the Hakuba (also known as Shirouma)  mountain range. In the height of summer when the snow had melted, the artist saw this flower field above the clouds. The spring had clearly yet silently visited the high rugged mountains.

The work was painted by TERASAKI Kogyo (1866-1919), a Japanese painter born in Akita  Prefecture at the end of the Edo period. He was trained in the traditional painting styles such as the Kano School, the Shijo School and Nanga, and gradually emerged as a leading figure in the world of Japanese painting in his later years. One of his peers who studied with him was YOKOYAMA Taikan (1868-1958), but while YOKOYAMA Taikan lived a long life, TERASAKI Kogyo died suddenly at the age of 52, and is not as well known.

The setting for this painting is the famous Mount Hakuba. Straddling Nagano and Toyama Prefectures, Mount Hakuba is known as one of the three mountains of Shirouma, together with Mount Shakushi and Mount Yari. It was once known as a popular mountain “Nishi-yama (West Mountain)” in Shinshu region, while in Hokuriku region it was an uncharted mountain behind the Tate-yama mountain range. The Kaga clan called it “Oku-yama mawari (Deeper Mountain Route)” and strengthened their border security accordingly. Since modern mountaineering began in earnest around 1900, it has been a treasure trove of alpine plants. TERASAKI Kogyo set up his villa in the Kanbayashi Onsen area in 1912, and stayed there every summer thereafter to work on his paintings.

The series “The Eight Themes of Mount Hakuba” (1917) is based on sketches of three days and two nights spent climbing the mountain, and depicts eight different views of Mount Hakuba at different times and places. The main motif of one part of the series, “Sekkeikaen”, is the 3.5km-long great snowy gorge and flowers growing in the place called Nebukappira near the summit. The towering rocky peak must be Mount Shakushi in the southern part of the snowy valley. The clouds are gradually rolling in and beginning to obscure the full extent of the peak, but they emphasise the imposing figure of the peak at the same time. The depiction of the snow-covered surface, exposed to the wind and rain, and the single solid line on the snow surface, makes us feel the steepness of the route to this point. The flowers in the foreground are modest in comparison to the scale of the landscape, but there is an abundance of orange, white and indigo-coloured flowers. Perhaps the slightly taller one is a wheel lily.

The flower fields of Hakuba, stretching from Nebukappira in the upper reaches of the great snowy gorge, lured the botanists of the Meiji period to this area (*). TERASAKI Kogyo was one of the mountaineers who came into contact with the mysteries of nature, and he painted a visionary picture of spring in Hakuba, including the rapidly changing atmosphere on the mountain.

 

KONNO Saki

Curator

Tohoku Fukushi University Serizawa Keisuke Art and Craft Museum

Translation :Naoko Mabon (WAGON)

 

 

In his essay “Shirouma gojunen” (“Fifty Years of Shirouma”, in “The Complete Modern Mountaineering Collection, Volume 4” Tokyo Sogensha Co., Ltd., 1961), SHIMURA Urei (1874-1961), a pioneer of mountain photography, wrote about his first ascent of the mountain in the summer of 1904. There, he notes that he had discovered a rare species thought to be extinct, and two new species at Nebukappira. It seems that he became obsessed with collecting plants in Hakuba and climbed the mountain every year until 1916. Just as “The Eight Themes of Mount Hakuba” was produced in 1917, it seems that TERASAKI Kogyo was one of those who was exposed to the pristine beauty of the area. In his essay, SHIMURA says that the area was losing its primitive appearance by around 1922 due to the rapid increase in the number of climbers. Incidentally, last year (2020) the great snowy gorge route was closed due to a lack of snow and extreme heat during summer, and there are concerns about the effects of global warming.

 

[Reference]

“TERASAKI KŌGYŌ” Akita Municipal Senshū Museum, 2016
“Mountain Aura: The Discovery of the Japanese Alps” Yamaguchi Prefectural Art Museum / Matsumoto City Museum of Art, 2016
NISSHO Hanahata “Mount Shirouma”, Yama-kei Publishers co.,Ltd., 2000
“Mt. Shirouma dake” edited by KUSHIDA Magokazu and others, Hakuhinsha, 1997

[Image caption]

TERASAKI Kogyo “Hakuba-yama hachidai (Sekkeikaen)” (“The Eight Themes of Mount Hakuba (Snowy Gorge and Flower Field)”)
1917, colour on paper, mounted as a scroll
Collection of the Akita Museum of Modern Art
Image courtesy of the Akita Museum of Modern Art